Tips : Tidbits

CLASSIC BAKING AND COOKING TECHNIQUES


Classic cooking techniques are essential to an accomplished home cook.  You will  understand the how's and why's of cooking methods that work best for certain foods when you know about classic techniques.  The following is a composite of different classic tips and tidbits I have learned over the years.


Tips

These are substitutions I have written down over the years and still refer to them today. Some are from my early days of Home Economic's in the 60's and some are current as the ingredients change and are more readily available.   There is nothing worse than to get halfway into making something, and you don't have an ingredient you need.  These substitution have saved many a recipe from being ruined in my kitchen.

These are simple conversions to help with the substitutions below:

3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons = 1/8 cup
4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup
5 and 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 cup
8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup
12 tablespoons = 3/4 cup
16 tablespoons = 1 cup
2 cups = 1 pint
4 cups = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
1 pound = 16 ounces
1 cup = 16 fluid ounces

All purpose flour - 1 cup = 1 cup self-rising flour minus salt and baking powder in recipe

Allspice - 1 teaspoon =  1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, and 1/4 teaspoon cloves (I can’t tell you how many times i used this substitute)

Apple Pie Spice - 1 teaspoon = 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, and either 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom, ginger or cloves

Baking powder - 1 teaspoon =  1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar 

Beer - 1 cup =  the same amount of club soda as recipe calls for regular beer.

Bread crumbs - 1 cup =  1 cup cracker crumbs, 1 cup ground oats, ground pretzels (omit or use less salt in recipe)

Bread Flour - 1 cup = 1 cup all purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon gluten (I buy this at whole foods stores)

Broth (chicken or beef) - 1 cup =  1 chicken or beef bouillon cube or 1 tsp. of chicken or beef paste in a cup of boiling water.

Butter (salted) - 1 cup =  1 cup shortening blended with 1 tablespoon buttermilk or yogurt and 1/2 teaspoon salt, or 1 cup unsalted butter plus1/2 teaspoon salt

Butter (unsalted) - 1 cup =  1 cup shortening or 1 cup butter and decrease salt by 1/2 teaspoon in recipe

Buttermilk - 1 cup =  1 cup whole milk less 1 tablespoon blended with 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar.  1 cup of yogurt also can be used or 1/4 cup buttermilk powder plus 1/4 cup water

Cake flour - 1 cup =  1 cup all purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons sifted 3 times and measured again

Cajun Spice - 1 tablespoon = 1/2 teaspoon white pepper, 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder, 1/2 teaspoon onion powder, 1/2 teaspoon ground red pepper, 1/2 teaspoon paprika, and 1/2 teaspoon black pepper

Chocolate (unsweetened) - 1 ounce=  3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon shortening or vegetable oil

Cocoa Powder - 1/4 cup =  1 ounce square unsweetened chocolate (reduce 1 tablespoon fat in recipe)

Coconut (fresh) - 1 cup = 3/4 cup packaged coconut

Coconut (packaged) - 1 cup = 1 1/4  cup fresh coconut

Coconut (fresh milk) - 1 cup = 1 cup canned milk plus 1 teaspoon coconut extact

Coconut (fresh cream) - 1 cup = 1 cup canned coconut cream

Coffee (strong brewed) - 1/4 cup = 2 tablespoons instant expresso mixed with 1 tablespoon boiling water

Cookie Crumbs - 1 cup = 1 cup graham cracker crumbs or equal amounts of wafer cookies

Cornmeal (ground) - 1 cup = 1 cup ground corn grits

Cornstarch - 1 tablespoons = 2 tablespoons all purpose flour

Corn Syrup (light) (i grew up calling this homemade breakfast syrup) - Makes 1 cup:  1 1/2 cup sugar plus 1/2 cup water cooked on the stove until thicken to 1 cup (may need to let cool before using it in a recipe)

Corn syrup (dark) - 1 cup = 1/4 cup molasses plus 1/4 cup light corn syrup

Cottage cheese - Makes 1 cup:  1 cup of ricotta cheese

Cream (heavy) - Makes 1 cup:  1 cup evaporated milk

Cream (whipped) - Makes 1 cup:  1 cup coconut milk

Cream cheese - 1 cup = 1 cup plain yogurt drained in a fine mesh strainer overnight

Cream of tartar - 1 teaspoon =  1 teaspoons lemon juice or vinegar less 1 teaspoons of liquid in the recipe

Cream (half and half) - 1 cup = 1/2 cup whole milk plus 1/2 cup evaporated milk

Cream (Heavy) - 1/4 cup evaporated milk and 3/4 whipping cream

Cream (Whipping) - 3/4 heavy cream plus 1/4 whole milk

Cream (Sour) - 1 cup = 1 cup plain yogurt or 1 cup milk plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar (leave at room temperature for 15-20 minutes

Creme fraiche - 1 cup =  Blend together 1/2 cup of heavy cream and 1/2 cup of plain yogurt or sour cream.  Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature.  Can substitute 1 cup sour cream

Egg (whole) - 1 large egg =  3 tablespoons mayonnaise (I use this substitute all the time-excellent)  or 1/4 cup of egg substitute

Eggs (whites) - 1 large egg = 30 grams of whites

Eggs (yokes) - 1 large egg = 18 grams of yoke

Evaporated milk - 1 cup =  1 cup half and half or 3/4 cup of whole milk plus 1/4 cup half and half

Fresh garlic - 1 whole garlic pod =  1/2 teaspoon garlic powder or 1/2 garlic salt (decrease salt in recipe)

Fresh ginger - 1 tablespoon =  1 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger

Fresh herbs - 1 tablespoon chopped (any  fresh herb) = 1/2 teaspoon dried herbs

Garlic Salt - 3/4 teaspoon = 1 medium size clove or 1/2 teaspoon minced fresh garlic

Gelatin (unflavored) - 1 envelope = 4 sheets of gelatin or 2 teaspoons agar

Ghee - 1 tablespoon = 1 tablespoon vegetable oil or 1 tablespoon clarified butter

Ground ginger - 1 teaspoon Equals:  2 teaspoons minced ginger

Green onions - 1/2 cup chopped =  1/2 cup chopped onions

Honey - 1 cup = 1/2  cup dark corn syrup plus 1/2 cup light corn syrup or 3/4 cup molasses plus 1/2 cup white sugar

Hot pepper sauce - 1 teaspoon = 3/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper plus 1 teaspoon vinegar

Italian seasoning - 1 teaspoon = Combine 1 teaspoon basil, 1 tablespoon fresh or dried parsley, and 1/2 teaspoon oregano

Ketchup - 1 cup = mixed together 1 cup tomato sauce, 1 teaspoon vinegar, and 1 tablespoon sugar (used this many times)

Lard - 1 cup = 1 cup shortening

Lemon juice - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon fresh or bottled lime juice or 1 teaspoon orange or pineapple juice

Lemon zest - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon lime or orange zest 

Lime juice - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon fresh or bottled lemon juice or 1 teaspoon orange, or pineapple   juice
Lime zest - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon lemon or orange zest

Mace - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon nutmeg

Maple syrup - 1 cup = 1 cup bottled or homemade corn syrup plus a 1 teaspoon maple extract

Marshmallows - 32 large marshmallows = 1 cup marshmallow cream or 4 cups miniature marshmallows 

Marshmallow creme1 jar = 16 ounce of marshmallows and 3 1/2 tablespoons corn syrup in a double boiler

Marshmallow (miniatures) - 1 cup = 8-10 large marshmallows

Mayonnaise - 1 cup = 1 cup sour cream (add an egg if you are using for baking) or 1 cup plain yogurt (add an egg if you are using for baking)

Molasses - 1 cup = 1 cup honey, or 1 cup dark corn syrup, or 1 cup maple syrup, or cook down 3/4 cup dark brown sugar with 1/4 cup water to measure to 1 cup

Mushrooms (fresh) - 1 pound = 3 ounces dried mushrooms plus 1 1/2 cups water or 1 (10 ounce) can

Nuts - 1 cup = most any nut can be substituted to your liking and you can combine varieties to make 1 cup

Oil (for sautéing) - 1/4 cup = 1/4 cup melted margarine  butter, bacon drippings, shortening, or lard

Oats (quick cooking) - 1 cup = 1 cup regular (old fashioned)  unless otherwise stated in the recipe

Oats (old fashioned) - 1 cup  = 1 cup quick cooking unless otherwise stated in the recipe

Orange juice (freshly squeezed or bottled) - 1 cup = 1 cup made from frozen concentrate that has been reconstituted

Orange zest - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon lemon or lime zest

Pimentos - 2 tablespoons, chopped = 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped fine

Poultry seasoning - 1 teaspoon = 1/2 teaspoon ground sage, 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme, and 1/2 teaspoon dried rosemary

Pumpkin pie spice - 1 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg


Raisins - 1 cup = 1 cup dried fruit (cherries, cranberries, blueberries, or currants)

Ricotta Cheese - 8 ounces = 8 ounces cottage cheese

Rum - 1/4 cup = 1 tablespoon rum extract plus enough liquid to make one cup

Salt (kosher) - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon sea salt or table

Salt (sea salt) - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon kosher salt or table salt

Salt (table salt) - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon kosher or sea salt

Self-rising flour - 1 cup =  Mix together 1 cup all purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt  (decrease salt in recipe 1/2 teaspoon)

Shortening (melted) - 1 cup = 1 cup cooking oil only to be used recipes that call for oil

Shortening (solid) - 1 cup = 1 cup butter, 1 cup margarine, or 1 cup lard minus 2 tablespoons

Self-rizing cornmeal - 1 cup = 1 cup cornmeal(regular), 1 1/2 tablespoon baking powder, and 1/2 teaspoon salt

Skim milk - 1 cup = 1/4 cup powered milk plus 1 cup water and then measure 1 cup milk

Sugar (white) - 1 cup = 1 cup packed powdered sugar

Sugar (brown) - 1 cup = 1 cup white sugar plus 3 tablespoons light molasses

Sweetened condensed milk - 1 can evaporated milked cooked in enough water to cover the can for 1 hour.  Let cool in before opening can and using in a recipe

Tomatoes (canned) - 1 cup = 1 1/3 cups diced fresh tomatoes cooked 10 minutes

Tomatoes (fresh) - 2 cups, chopped = 1 (16 ounce) can tomatoes

Tomatoes ( packed) - 1 cup = 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water

Tomato Juice - 1 cup = 1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water

Tomato Sauce - 2 cups = 3/4 cups tomato paste plus 1 cup water

Vanilla Bean - 1 bean = 2-3 teaspoons pure vanilla extract

Vanilla Bean Paste - 1/2 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Vanilla (pure) Extract - 1 teaspoon = 1/2 teaspoon vanilla bean paste

Vinegar (Balsamic) - 1 tablespoons = 1 tablespoon sherry or cider vinegar

Vinegar (Regular) - 1 tablespoon = 1 tablespoon lemon or lime juice

Worcestershire sauce - 1 teaspoon = 1 teaspoon steak sauce (I use A-1 Sauce)

Yeast (active) - 1 tablespoon = 1 yeast compressed yeast cake, or 1 package active dry yeast, or 1 tablespoon instant or fast rising active yeast

Yogurt (plain) - 1 cup = 1 cup buttermilk, or 1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth, or 1 cup sour cream



Tidbits

Food and Seasoning Combinations Tidbits:  The following are tidbits for creating flavors when you do not have a recipe.  Use a combination of one or two or all to reach the flavor you want in a recipe..

Chicken
Salt and Pepper
Lemon Pepper
Ginger
Paprika
Cumin
Rosemary
Thyme

Beef
Salt and Pepper
Onion Powder
Coriander
Oregano
Rosemary
Red Pepper Flakes

Wild Meat
Salt and Pepper
Onion Powder
Garlic
Coriander
Celery Seed
Rosemary
Barbeque Spices

Pork
Salt and Pepper
Onion Powder
Ginger
Coriander
Celery Seed
Cajun Spices
Barbecue Spices

Conversions


Rule of Thumb Tidbit:

1.  Do not use spread or low-fat butter in baking.
2.  1 banana to 1/2 cup of flour when making a Banana Bread recipe.
3.  Use 1/4 teaspoon baking soda to 1 cup of flour in a recipe.
4.  Use 1 teaspoon of baking powder to 1 cup of flour in a recipe.
(Come back later still adding Tidbits)





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1 comment :

  1. Thank you so much for all your help.

    ReplyDelete

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